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I have been able to piece together the interesting journey of one of these tear vials. It was donated by Elizabeth Stillman, who gave hundreds of objects to multiple museums when she died. These included archaeological items, anthropological artifacts, and some biological samples. Stillman traveled all around Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, collecting huge numbers of artifacts. In the records as "Miss Elizabeth Stillman," it is noteworthy that an unmarried woman did such extensive traveling in this era.

She bought this vial in a market in Beirut, Lebanon, in The object started its life in an ancient glassmaker's workshop, before finding its way to a mourner. An ancient Phoenician, heartbroken at the death of a loved one or paid to cry to add drama to a funeral , caught his tears in it and buried it with the deceased.

Centuries later, the tear vial was unearthed, likely by an archaeologist. I know how exciting that find must have been to the archaeologist who uncovered the tear vial. Because of his or her effort, I had the opportunity to study this fascinating object. Skip to main content. Blog Home About Archive.

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Digging for history: Ancient glass in the collection. Brushing the ground clean at the end of a day of excavating in Spain. I was overjoyed every time I found a small sherd of pottery, or was able to match two pieces of a bowl together. An Egypto-Roman string of beads, a Sidonian perfume bottle, and a Sidonian date flask. All are from the 1st century AD. A double balsamarium, resembling a tear vial, from the Roman Empire during the 3rd-4th centuries AD. Posted in From the Collections , Intern Perspectives. Related Blog Posts. A General's coins and a Japanese restoration.

Grant's collection of Are these John Wilkes Booth's field glasses? Curator Deborah Warner's research on a valuable accessory may reveal a connection to President Abraham Lincoln's assassin. Subscribe to our feed Subscribe by e-mail. Categories Philanthropy. Star-Spangled Banner. Religion in America.

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Race to the Museum. Object Project. Public Programs. You Asked, We Answer. Weingarten Portrait. Women's History. Director's Notes. Far From the Madding Crowd is an example of a novel in which chance has a major role: "Had Bathsheba not sent the valentine, had Fanny not missed her wedding, for example, the story would have taken an entirely different path.

In Hardy published his first volume of poetry, Wessex Poems , a collection of poems written over 30 years. While some suggest that Hardy gave up writing novels following the harsh criticism of Jude the Obscure in , the poet C. Sisson calls this "hypothesis" "superficial and absurd". Thomas Hardy wrote in a great variety of poetic forms including lyrics , ballads , satire, dramatic monologues , and dialogue, as well as a three-volume epic closet drama The Dynasts —08 , [32] and though in some ways a very traditional poet, because he was influenced by folksong and ballads , [33] he "was never conventional," and "persistently experiment[ed] with different, often invented, stanza forms and metres, [34] and made use of "rough-hewn rhythms and colloquial diction".

Some of Hardy's most famous poems are from "Poems of —13", part of Satires of Circumstance , written following the death of his wife Emma in They had been estranged for twenty years and these lyric poems express deeply felt "regret and remorse". Many of Hardy's poems deal with themes of disappointment in love and life, and "the perversity of fate", but the best of them present these themes with "a carefully controlled elegiac feeling". Although his poems were initially not as well received as his novels had been, Hardy is now recognised as one of the greatest twentieth-century poets, and his verse has had a profound influence on later writers, including Robert Frost , W.

Auden , Dylan Thomas , and, most notably Philip Larkin. Hardy's family was Anglican , but not especially devout. He was baptised at the age of five weeks and attended church, where his father and uncle contributed to music. However, he did not attend the local Church of England school, instead being sent to Mr Last's school, three miles away. As a young adult, he befriended Henry R. Bastow a Plymouth Brethren man , who also worked as a pupil architect, and who was preparing for adult baptism in the Baptist Church.

Hardy flirted with conversion, but decided against it. This concluded Hardy's links with the Baptists. The irony and struggles of life, coupled with his naturally curious mind, led him to question the traditional Christian view of God:. The 'tribal god, man-shaped, fiery-faced and tyrannous' is replaced by the 'unconscious will of the Universe' which progressively grows aware of itself and 'ultimately, it is to be hoped, sympathetic'.

Scholars have debated Hardy's religious leanings for years, often unable to reach a consensus. However, Hardy's religious life seems to have mixed agnosticism , deism , and spiritism. Once, when asked in correspondence by a clergyman, Dr A.

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Grosart, about the question of reconciling the horrors of human and animal life with "the absolute goodness and non-limitation of God", [50] Hardy replied,. Hardy regrets that he is unable to offer any hypothesis which would reconcile the existence of such evils as Dr. Grosart describes with the idea of omnipotent goodness. Perhaps Dr. Grosart might be helped to a provisional view of the universe by the recently published Life of Darwin and the works of Herbert Spencer and other agnostics. Hardy frequently conceived of, and wrote about, supernatural forces, particularly those that control the universe through indifference or caprice, a force he called The Immanent Will.

He also showed in his writing some degree of fascination with ghosts and spirits. Hardy's friends during his apprenticeship to John Hicks included Horace Moule one of the eight sons of Henry Moule , and the poet William Barnes , both ministers of religion. Moule remained a close friend of Hardy's for the rest of his life, and introduced him to new scientific findings that cast doubt on literal interpretations of the Bible, [52] such as those of Gideon Mantell.

Moule gave Hardy a copy of Mantell's book The Wonders of Geology in , and Adelene Buckland has suggested that there are "compelling similarities" between the "cliffhanger" section from A Pair of Blue Eyes and Mantell's geological descriptions. Sites associated with Hardy's own life and which inspired the settings of his novels continue to attract literary tourists and casual visitors. Lawrence 's Study of Thomas Hardy indicates the importance of Hardy for him, even though this work is a platform for Lawrence's own developing philosophy rather than a more standard literary study.

The influence of Hardy's treatment of character, and Lawrence's own response to the central metaphysic behind many of Hardy's novels, helped significantly in the development of The Rainbow and Women in Love Wood and Stone , the first novel by John Cowper Powys , who was a contemporary of Lawrence, was "Dedicated with devoted admiration to the greatest poet and novelist of our age Thomas Hardy". Hardy was clearly the starting point for the character of the novelist Edward Driffield in W. Somerset Maugham 's novel Cakes and Ale Hardy has been a significant influence on Nigel Blackwell, frontman of the post-punk British rock band Half Man Half Biscuit , who has often incorporated phrases some obscure by or about Hardy, into his song lyrics.

Hardy divided his novels and collected short stories into three classes: [ citation needed ]. Hardy also produced a number of minor tales; one story, The Spectre of the Real was written in collaboration with Florence Henniker. His works have been collected as the volume Wessex Edition —13 and the volume Mellstock Edition — His largely self-written biography appears under his second wife's name in two volumes from to , as The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, —91 and The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, — , now published in a critical one-volume edition as The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy , edited by Michael Millgate From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other people named Thomas Hardy, see Thomas Hardy disambiguation. Stinsford parish church heart Poets' Corner , Westminster Abbey ashes. Emma Gifford — Florence Dugdale — This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Chundle" " The Unconquerable " Thomas Hardy: 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles'. The Guardian. Retrieved 17 August Royal Borough Observer. Retrieved 19 May The London Gazette.

Heart Burial. BBC Online. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 12 August Bullen 24 June Thomas Hardy: The World of his Novels. Frances Lincoln. Delphi Classics. Retrieved 9 November Jude the Obscure. Penguin Classics.

New York: W. Norton, , p. New York: Routledge, , p. Linda Pavlovski. Gale Group, Inc. Retrieved 7 September Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, , p.

Marion Wynne Davies. New York: Prentice Hall, , p. The Poetry Foundation. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, , pp. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, , pp Retrieved 16 April LiederNet Archive. Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 2 May Wright, "Hardy's Heirs: D. Chichester, Sussex: John Wiley, New York: Overlook Duckworth, , p. Bridgend, Wales: Seren, , p. Retrieved 26 April New York: Grove Press, Tess of the d'Urbervilles. Chapter Retrieved 21 February Colby Library Quarterly, series 1, no. Armstrong, Tim.

Beatty, Claudius J. Thomas Hardy: Conservation Architect. Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Thomas Hardy. New York: St. Martin's, Brady, Kristen. The Short Stories of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, Boumelha, Penny. Thomas Hardy and Women. New Jersey: Barnes and Noble, Brennecke, Jr. The Life of Thomas Hardy.

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New York: Greenberg, Cecil, Lord David. Hardy the Novelist. London: Constable, Deacon, Lois and Terry Coleman. Providence and Mr. London: Hutchinson, Draper, Jo. Thomas Hardy: A Life in Pictures. Wimborne, Dorset: The Dovecote Press. Gatrell, Simon. Hardy the Creator: A Textual Biography. Oxford: Clarendon, Gibson, James. Thomas Hardy: A Literary Life. Thomas Hardy: Interviews and Recollections. Gittings, Robert.

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Thomas Hardy's Later Years. Young Thomas Hardy. Gittings, Robert and Jo Manton. The Second Mrs Hardy. London: Heinemann, Gossin, P. Halliday, F. Thomas Hardy: His Life and Work. Hands, Timothy. Martin's Press, Hardy, Evelyn. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography.

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